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SharonneDwade's Blog

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entry mer. 16 mars 2016, 05:42
For centuries, humans have given a lot of thought to what separates them from the animals. Though there are a lot of differences between us and animals, many argue that it is our superior reasoning abilities that truly sets us apart. In more recent years, we’ve turned our attention to what distinguishes humans from machines. In a short amount of time, artificial intelligence science has advanced so quickly that computers now seem more human than ever. The greatest obstacle in creating artificial intelligence is not creating something intelligent. The challenge is creating something that seems human. Throughout the short history of artificial intelligence science, a number of tests have been proposed that will differentiate between true artificial intelligence and a wannabe.

The Turing Test

Alan Turing, a British code breaker who inspired the movie The Imitation Game, was one of the pioneers of artificial intelligence science. He proposed a test he called the imitation game, later renamed the Turing Test, that would distinguish whether a machine could be said to be artificially intelligent. The test is simple in concept but extremely difficult to actually pass. The test works by having a machine carry on a conversation with a human acting as judge. If the human cannot distinguish a machine from a human through conversation alone (the human doesn’t get to see the machine so it doesn’t have to look human) then it is said to have passed the Turing Test.

Tricking the Turing Test

What Alan Turing couldn’t have predicted is the devious nature of computer programmers who would set out to devise a machine that could trick his test rather than embody true artificial intelligence. Only in the last couple of years have machines been able to trick human judges into believing they’re carrying on a conversation with another human. The problem with these machines is they can do one thing, and one thing only.

The Lovelace Test

Now that the Turing Test has been bested, a test proposed in 2001 by Selmer Bringsjord, Paul Bello, and David Ferrucci called the Lovelace Test is being used to distinguish man from machine. For the Lovelace Test, a human judge asks an artificially intelligence machine to create some piece of art, either a poem, story, or picture. Next the human judge gives a criterion, for example, write a poem about a cat. If a machine can follow this direction, it’s said to be sufficiently human.

What about empathy?

Recently, there has been some thought about what society really wants out of an artificially intelligent machine. It’s great if they can carry on a conversation or produce art, but what about those human emotions that set us apart from machines. In a recent panel discussion at Robotronica 2015, panelists discussed what human emotions it would be important for artificial intelligence to obtain. Empathy was first on the list. If a machine could feel empathy, humans won’t need to fear artificial intelligence as we tend to do.

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entry mer. 2 mars 2016, 06:11
Netflix has its system of recommending other movies and shows for you to watch. I watch Captain America The First Avenger and a que asks me if I want to watch Iron Man, The Incredible Hulk or Marvel's Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. Google has an algorithm for speech recognition. What are these and other companies trying to simulate? They want these models to think like humans. It's not likely that these artificial intelligence models can think like humans, but in some cases, they can actually think better than a human. For example, look at Watson, the famous computer who played Jeopardy and won against humans. Or if there is a database of CAT scans with a certain type of label for a tumor, the artificial intelligence model in that case can very quickly search all of the records and find the desired result.

Unsupervised Learning or Memory Foam

A new and exciting field of "unsupervised learning" is growing in the artificial intelligence world. Much like a human, this object is able to gain understanding as a whole, across many different domains. They are calling this "Memory Foam."

Loughborough University in the UK

A team in the UK at Loughborough University has been working on the Memory Foam concept. A memory foam mattress, which is sometimes called newer generation foam, was actually developed by NASA in 1966 to improve their aircraft cushions. Memory Foam softens and molds in all kinds of ways to your body because of the heat your body gives off.  Just like the mattress memory foam, the UK team is trying to program computers in this model to be able to do the same kind of thing. The computer model will form like memory form, taking on the shape of the model that they need it to.

Mary Had a little Lamb

The UK team choose the familiar children's nursery rhyme, "Mary had a little lamb" as the stimulus for their AI model. The computer was able to recognize the song, assimilate it and remembered the components of the song and the frequencies, which was a huge win for Loughborough University and to all of the AI hopefuls as the change that they are looking for.

The rise of the machines

In 1984, we were introduced to Artificial Intelligence in the file, The Terminator. James Cameron and Arnold Schwarzenegger introduced us to machines that could rise up against us, using artificial intelligence. The terminator was able to learn and adapt to the circumstances around us. I don't think we have to worry about Mary and her little lamb turning on us, but like the Terminator said, as far as artificial intelligence and the growth it is going through, "I'll be back."

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